Download A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation by R. Franceys PDF
By R. Franceys
Offers special useful and technical suggestion meant to steer the choice, layout, development, and upkeep of on-site amenities for the elimination of human excreta. Addressed to engineers, sanitarians, scientific officials, and undertaking planners, the e-book concentrates on technical suggestions compatible for homeowners development their very own latrines, no matter if in small groups, rural parts, or disadvantaged city settlements. info variety from line drawings illustrating positive aspects of layout and building, via an inventory of the explanation why superior sanitation could elicit unfavorable responses from clients, to directions for calculating the interior dimensions of a septic tank.
The ebook gains 11 chapters in 3 components. Chapters within the first half introduce the principles of sanitary perform, describe the hyperlinks among excreta and sickness, and clarify the various social and cultural components that has to be thought of on the making plans section. Chapters within the moment and so much huge half supply an in depth technical advisor to the layout, development, operation and upkeep of the entire major suggestions for on-site sanitation. Chapters describe how the different sorts of latrine paintings, talk about their relative advantages, and set out distinct plans for the development of latrines and their parts. the ultimate half gains 3 chapters at the making plans and improvement of on-site sanitation tasks, underscoring the necessity for a radical research of cultural in addition to layout positive factors.
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Additional info for A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation
The channel is covered by precast concrete slabs or by bricks laid transversely across the top (Fig. 10). Pipes or channels should project at least 100 mm into the pit. Generally speaking, an offset pour-flush latrine requires a larger volume of flushing water than a simple pour-flush latrine. The amount of water required depends on the pan design, pipe slope and roughness. 5 litres has been recorded as necessary for each flush, but usually considerably more than this is required. Offset pour-flush latrines are favoured by many because the superstructure can be permanent.
The distance of the pit from the house wall should be not less than its depth, to prevent the load from the wall causing the pit to collapse. If this is not possible, the pit may be located not less than one metre from the wall, provided that the pit is fully lined and the unsupported plan length parallel to the wall does not exceed one metre (Fig. 14). Fig. 10. Brick-covered drain Fig. 11. Moving the discharge pipe of an offset pour-flush latrine to a new pit Fig. 12. Pipe laid through a hole In an external wall Fig.
This occurs where the outside air temperature is colder than the air in the pit, which may prevent the air circulating. Very little can be done to prevent this, other than sealing the defecation hole at night. In addition to removing odours from the pit, the screened vent pipe significantly controls flies. In Zimbabwe, Morgan (1977) compared the number of flies leaving the squat hole of a VIP latrine with the number leaving a simple pit latrine. 1. Flies are attracted to the pit by the odour coming from the vent pipe but are unable to enter because of the screen.