Download Amazon: Pollen Manual and Atlas by Paul A Collinvaux, Paulo E. De Oliveira, Enrique Moreno PDF
By Paul A Collinvaux, Paulo E. De Oliveira, Enrique Moreno
Amazon will end up a strong device for ecologists and weather modelers. It additionally comprises short stories of pioneering pollen paintings within the Amazon so far; sections on pollen equipment, pollen statistics, paleoecology, and lake coring equipment.
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Extra info for Amazon: Pollen Manual and Atlas
1984). Species last longer than glaciations—generally several million years, depending on the kind of organism. Thus the life-span of a species is much longer than a glacial cycle. Nearly all contemporary species, therefore, have passed most of their existence in ice-age time. Modern diversity is ice-age diversity, accommodated for the moment to the unusual climate of our comparatively brief interglacial. Thus, to understand Amazon diversity, we must understand the ice-age Amazon. 1 For comparison note that forty human lifetimes (giving us 50 years each) only separate us from the time when Julius Caesar crossed the River Rubicon with his army, signaling the final destruction of the Roman Republic.
Haffer suggested that in ice-age time forest patches lingered on high ground, and he further suggested that the intervening low areas were dry savanna so that the forest patches were effectively isolated. 11 If we are correct in concluding that the Amazon lowlands were always forested, the Haffer hypothesis has now been tested and falsified: there was no geographical isolation by aridity to promote the necessary vicariance. But the main tenet of the Haffer hypothesis, “vicariance in ice age time,” can still hold.
The core is then taken in sections with a hand-operated drill (a piston sampler) operated inside the casing. 1). PISTON SAMPLERS The more organic lake muds (sapropels or gyttja) are, when underwater, soft and easily penetrated with a tube. Yet just pushing a simple tube into the mud does not result in a complete core because the mud tends to block the end of the tube, after which continued pushing on the blocked tube merely pushes the sediment aside rather than letting the sediment enter. This happens because friction between the inside of the tube and the A guide to piston coring of lake sediments 33 sediment quickly becomes greater than the force needed to push the sediment aside.