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Download American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, by Gina Misiroglu PDF

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By Gina Misiroglu

Counterculture, whereas everyday to explain youth-oriented activities in the course of the Sixties, refers to any try and problem or swap traditional values and practices or the dominant existence of the day. This attention-grabbing three-volume set explores those activities in the USA from colonial occasions to the current in colourful element. "American Countercultures" is the 1st reference paintings to check the impression of countercultural routine on American social heritage. It highlights the writings, recordings, and visible works produced by means of those events to teach, motivate, and incite motion in all eras of the nation's historical past. A-Z entries offer a wealth of knowledge on personalities, locations, occasions, suggestions, ideals, teams, and practices. The set comprises various illustrations, a subject finder, fundamental resource files, a bibliography and a filmography, and an index.

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Additional resources for American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in U.S. History

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By the 1950s, claims by market researcher James Vicary to have discovered “subliminal advertising”—a technique of embedding hidden messages in advertising that were detectable only by one’s unconscious—seemed only to reconfirm advertising’s role in maintaining the status quo. However, the counterculture and advertising informed each other in many ways, one being how advertising both drew upon and influenced various modern, countercultural artistic movements and styles. Because of the need always to be new to attract attention, advertisers developed new artistic styles, while they also were influenced by new trends in art.

Such examples criticized blithe acceptance of the use of the jellied gasoline as a military weapon during the Vietnam War. Advertising Today The three ways in which advertising and the counterculture are connected (modern art, hip consumerism, and protests) have only merged more closely since the 1960s. Today’s advertising commonly adopts the irony, fragmentation, and fast pace typical of postmodernist styles, with many television ads geared to younger audiences looking much like music videos. Advertising continues to make fun of the status quo and of conformity, while glorifying countercultural values and individual liberation.

The Abraham Lincoln Brigade suffered nearly 750 deaths—a casualty rate much higher than that of American servicemen during World War II—and most members of the battalion were either wounded in battle or suffered from exposure-related illnesses. Ultimately the cause was lost, however, as Franco and the fascists won the war and ruled Spain until the dictator’s death in 1975. On the home front, Lincoln Brigade members became heroes of the American leftist movement. Their reputation suffered, however, after members supported the Soviet nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany in 1939.

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