Download American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the by Gary Haynes PDF

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By Gary Haynes

The quantity includes summaries of evidence, theories, and unsolved difficulties concerning the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of ordinarily huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the USA and approximately 1,000 years later in South the United States. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of people has ended in the recommendation that foraging people are guilty, even if significant climatic shifts have been additionally occurring within the Americas in the course of many of the extinctions. The final released quantity with related (but no longer exact) topics -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; considering the fact that then loads of cutting edge, interesting new learn has been performed yet has now not but been compiled and summarized. diversified chapters during this quantity offer in-depth resumés of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the USA, the prospective insights into animal ecology supplied by means of stories of good isotopes and anatomical/physiological features reminiscent of development increments in large and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic study approximately large-mammal biology, the functions of courting ways to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies relating human searching of huge mammals.

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Science 145:1408–1413 Haynes CV Jr (1966) Elephant-hunting in North America. Sci Am 214(6):104–112 Haynes CV Jr (1991) Geoarchaeological and paleohydrological evidence for a Clovis-age drought in North America and its bearing on extinction. Quat Res 35:438–450 Haynes CV Jr (1993) Clovis-Folsom geochronology and climatic change. In: Soffer O, Praslov ND (eds) From Kostenki to Clovis: Upper Paleolithic-Paleoindian adaptations. Plenum Press, NY, pp 219–236 Haynes CV Jr (1998) Geochronology of the stratigraphic manifestation of paleoclimatic events at Paleoindian sites.

Paper presented at 69th annual meeting of Society for American Archaeology, Mar. 31-Apr. 4, Montreal, Quebec Crossen KJ, Yesner DR, Veltre DW, Graham RW (2005) 5,700-year-old mammoth remains from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska: Last outpost of North American megafauna. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of Geological Society of America, Oct. 16–19, Salt Lake City, UT Dansie AJ, Jerrems WJ (2004) Lahontan chronology and early human occupation in the western Great Basin: A new look at old collections.

I have previously hypothesized (Fiedel, 1999a) that the abrupt rise of the regional water table in the Southwest, which led to black mat formation, was synchronous with the onset of the Younger Dryas; this was expressed as both increased precipitation and colder temperatures (which reduced evaporation). If this inference is correct, the mammoth and the overlying black mat should date to about 12,900 cal bp. This is consonant with current calibration of the radiocarbon dates. Sheriden Cave in Ohio (Redmond and Tankersley, 2005) seems to have been either a natural trap or predator den for centuries before humans arrived in the area.

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